- 1 Generator Automatic Controls Project
- 2 THE DESIGN
Generator Automatic Controls Project
Collecting thoughts, materials, designs for an automatic Generator Control for the Nigerian environment
PARTS for generator controls
This is one I use on 3 systems here: Media:CamperPowerUnit-109821E_english_manual.pdf
TRANSFER SWITCHES There are two considerations, but the FIRST one is critical: It needs to be virtually IMPOSSIBLE for the generator to "Feed Back" into the power line. If it did, there are BAD things that can happen: (1) DANGER to other people, especially Power Company workers, who thought the circuit was off. and (2) overload of the generator and possible damage due to not being synchronized with other power sources on this line. You need a relay system that CAN NOT connect the generator to the external power line, even if it has a fault. So the Solid State Relays "would be great" but they can fail, and thy usually fail 'shorted'... So you need a relay / contactor that is "Form C" which would also be called "Double Pole, Double Throw"..
Relay Contact "Form"
Examples of possible Transfer Relays - LINKS:
(1) THIS is a 100 Amp rated relay with ONE "Form Z" contact. It would take TWO of these to create a "2C" or "Double pole double throw" relay.
NOTE: A relay with TWO "form Z" contacts would be good.
(2) THIS is a 80 Amp rated relay with two "Form Z" contacts. (Type JQX-62F-2Z ) This may be the best choice. This is equivalent to but better that a "Double Pole Double Throw". //www.aliexpress.com/item/32805059192.html
(3) THIS is a 80 Amp rated relay with two "Form C" contacts. So it is "Double Pole Double Throw". It is physically for "DIN Rail Mount" so that's not necessary. //www.aliexpress.com/item/477268399.html
Nigerian Power - Generators and Controls
Power in Home and businesses 230V 50 Hz. 1 Phase to smaller homes, 3 phase to businesses.
Typical home: 230V at ??? current??
VERSION/Editor: 1.0 4 TK
DATE/TIME: 14 Jul 2019 18:25 NT
SOME BEGINNER STATE MACHINES?
CELL_POWER_MANAGER (highest level)
CheckSensors // Update global variables
CheckCommunications // Receive new communications. Update display as needed, Send communications as needed
BatteryManager //Monitors Battery, SOC, decides if GeneratorPowerRequested is TRUE/FALSE
Generator_Engine_Manager // Maintains the STATE of the GEN. Starts, Stops, etc. Monitors GeneratorPowerRequested
MakeDecisions // Based on overall system: Data Variables, STATES of other sub-managers
TakeActions // Set variables to new values, Change STATE of sub-managers
NOTE: Includes Charger status and control
Check_SOC // reads current Battery voltage, other parameters as available
if (SOC < Setpoint) // Needs both high and low SOC values
set Generator_Power_Requested TRUE
set Generator_Power_Requested POWER FALSE
IF GeneratorPowerRequested set State to Starting
Starting //(Cranking, checking for sucess)
Start_Failure // Wait time, then change state to Starting. Too may attempts, set StartFailure
Running_Startup // Warmup
Running_Normal // Load is applied
IF GeneratorPowerRequested is FALSE, set State to StoppingNormal
Stopping Normal // Load disconnected, CoolDown
/*---( Fault States )------*/
Stopping_Low_Fuel // Send alarm
GLOBAL DATA DEFINITIONS
(StateVariable for each State Machine)
Global Status variables like GeneratorPowerRequired
Current Fuel Level
Things for a specific installation, like:
Fuel Tank Capacity
Battery AH rating
Nominal Cell System power load
Fuel Level Low Alarm Setpoint
Battery Temperature High Alarm Setpoint
(Engine Parameters) - MaxCrankingSeconds - Start_Failure_Retry_Delay - Start_Attempts_allowed
currently working on a more concise State Diagram