HS.Engineering Design Engineering Design | ||||
Students who demonstrate understanding can:{| |
HS-ETS1-1. | Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
HS-ETS1-2. | Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. | |||
HS-ETS1-3. | Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. | |||
HS-ETS1-4. | Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. |
|- class="row2b" | colspan="3" | The performance expectations above were developed using [#framework the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education]: |- class="row3" | class="blue" | ==Science and Engineering Practices=====Asking Questions and Defining Problems===Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.
- Analyze complex real-world problems by specifying criteria and constraints for successful solutions. (HS-ETS1-1)===Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking===Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
- Use mathematical models and/or computer simulations to predict the effects of a design solution on systems and/or the interactions between systems. (HS-ETS1-4)===Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions===[4]Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles and theories.
- Design a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-ETS1-2)
- Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-ETS1-3)
| class="orange" |
Disciplinary Core Ideas=====ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems=
- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (HS-ETS1-1)
- Humanity faces major global challenges today, such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have manifestations in local communities. (HS-ETS1-1)===[5]ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions===
- When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)
- Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (HS-ETS1-4)===ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution===
- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)
| class="green" |
Crosscutting Concepts=====Systems and System Models=
- Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows— within and between systems at different scales. (HS-ETS1-4)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ===Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science===
===Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World===[6] - New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. (HS-ETS1-1) (HS-ETS1-3)
|- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Connections to HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:Physical Science: [/hsps2-motion-stability-forces-interactions HS-PS2-3,] [/hsps3-energy HS-PS3-3]Connections to HS-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Problems include:Earth and Space Science: [/hsess3-earth-human-activity HS-ESS3-2,] [hsess3-earth-human-activity HS-ESS3-4] Life Science: [/hsls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics HS-LS2-7], [/hsls4-biological-evolution-unity-diversity HS-LS4-6]Connections to MS-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:Physical Science: [/hsps1-matter-interactions HS-PS1-6,] [/hsps2-motion-stability-forces-interactions HS-PS2-3] |- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:[/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.A] (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); [/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.B] (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); [/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.C] (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-4) |- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Common Core State Standards Connections:{| | class="head" colspan="2" | ELA/Literacy - |- ! RST.11-12.7 | Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- ! RST.11-12.8 | Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- ! RST.11-12.9 | Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- | class="head" colspan="2" | Mathematics - |- ! MP.2 | Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) |- ! MP.4 | Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) |} |}
HS.Engineering Design Engineering Design | ||||
Students who demonstrate understanding can:{| |
HS-ETS1-1. | Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
HS-ETS1-2. | Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. | |||
HS-ETS1-3. | Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. | |||
HS-ETS1-4. | Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. |
|- class="row2b" | colspan="3" | The performance expectations above were developed using [#framework the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education]: |- class="row3" | class="blue" | ==Science and Engineering Practices=====Asking Questions and Defining Problems===Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.
- Analyze complex real-world problems by specifying criteria and constraints for successful solutions. (HS-ETS1-1)===Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking===Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
- Use mathematical models and/or computer simulations to predict the effects of a design solution on systems and/or the interactions between systems. (HS-ETS1-4)===Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions===[7]Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles and theories.
- Design a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-ETS1-2)
- Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-ETS1-3)
| class="orange" |
Disciplinary Core Ideas=====ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems=
- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (HS-ETS1-1)
- Humanity faces major global challenges today, such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have manifestations in local communities. (HS-ETS1-1)===[8]ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions===
- When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)
- Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (HS-ETS1-4)===ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution===
- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)
| class="green" |
Crosscutting Concepts=====Systems and System Models=
- Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows— within and between systems at different scales. (HS-ETS1-4)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ===Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science===
===Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World===[9] - New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. (HS-ETS1-1) (HS-ETS1-3)
|- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Connections to HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:Physical Science: [/hsps2-motion-stability-forces-interactions HS-PS2-3,] [/hsps3-energy HS-PS3-3]Connections to HS-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Problems include:Earth and Space Science: [/hsess3-earth-human-activity HS-ESS3-2,] [hsess3-earth-human-activity HS-ESS3-4] Life Science: [/hsls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics HS-LS2-7], [/hsls4-biological-evolution-unity-diversity HS-LS4-6]Connections to MS-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:Physical Science: [/hsps1-matter-interactions HS-PS1-6,] [/hsps2-motion-stability-forces-interactions HS-PS2-3] |- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:[/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.A] (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); [/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.B] (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); [/msets1-engineering-design MS.ETS1.C] (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-4) |- class="ff" | colspan="3" | Common Core State Standards Connections:{| | class="head" colspan="2" | ELA/Literacy - |- ! RST.11-12.7 | Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- ! RST.11-12.8 | Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- ! RST.11-12.9 | Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) |- | class="head" colspan="2" | Mathematics - |- ! MP.2 | Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) |- ! MP.4 | Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) |} |}
* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea. The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.